Writing Vocabulary: Gender Issues

Attaining gender equality (əˈteɪnɪŋ ˈdʒɛndər ɪˈkwɒlɪti): The process of achieving equal opportunities and rights for all genders, particularly in social, political, and economic aspects. Sexual discrimination (ˈsɛksjʊəl ˌdɪskrɪˈmɪneɪʃən): Unfair treatment or prejudice based on an individual’s sex or gender. A male-gender-biased society (ə meɪl-ˈdʒɛndər-ˈbaɪəst səˈsaɪəti): A society that favors men and is unfair to women or non-binary individuals in terms of rights, opportunities, and social roles. Second-class citizens (ˈsɛkənd klɑːs ˈsɪtɪzən): Refers to individuals who are systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as citizens or legal residents.

Speaking Vocavulary: Family

An extended family /ɪkˈstɛndɪd ˈfæməli/: A family that extends beyond the nuclear family, including grandparents, aunts, uncles, and other relatives. “I grew up in a large extended family, which made holidays and family gatherings very lively.” A nuclear family /ˈnuːkliər ˈfæməli/: A family group that consists only of parents and children. “Although I have many relatives, my immediate nuclear family is quite small with just my parents and my sister.

Speaking Part 1: Questions

Email 1. How often do you check your mail? I check my mail multiple times a day, especially during work hours. I like to stay updated with any important messages or updates. I usually check my email once in the morning and once in the evening. I find that this routine helps me manage my time better without being constantly distracted by incoming emails. 2. Do you think writing emails has strengthened or weakened people’s writing skills?

Writing Task 1: Structure

Structure 1. Introduction: Start your essay by paraphrasing the question and providing a brief overview of the chart or graph. Mention the type of chart (e.g., bar chart, line graph, pie chart, table) and the main subject or topic it represents. For example: “The given bar chart illustrates the sales figures of three different products in a department store over a period of five years.” The given chart/graph presents… The provided visual data illustrates… This bar chart/line graph/pie chart/table depicts… 2.

Speaking Vocabulary: Clothes

It is in vogue (ɪt ɪz ɪn voʊg): Currently popular or in fashion. It is fashionable (ɪt ɪz ˈfæʃənəbəl): Stylish and currently popular. It is one of a kind (ɪt ɪz wʌn ʌv ə kaɪnd): Unique; unlike anything else. It is trendy (ɪt ɪz ˈtrɛndi): Currently popular or in style. Casual/formal clothes (ˈkæʒuəl/ˈfɔːrməl kloʊðz): Outfits suitable for everyday wear or relaxed settings (casual) versus outfits suitable for formal events or occasions (formal).

Writing Task 1: Words and Phrases to Describe Trends

Upwards Trend Noun Adjective + noun Verb + adverb a rise a sharp increase increased sharply an increase a considerable increase increased considerably a peak a substantial increase increased substantially an exponential increase increased exponentially a dramatic increase increased dynamically a slight increase increased slightly a gradual increase increased dradually a marginal increase increased marginally a minimal increase increased minimally a steady increase increased steadily Downward Trend Noun Adjective + noun Verb + adverb Verb a decrease a sharp decrease decreased sharply plummeted a fall a considerable decrease decreased considerably plunged a drop a substantial decrease decreased substantially a decline a precipitous decline declined precipitously a dip a dramatic decrease decreased dramatically a plunge a marginal fall fell marginally a minimal drop dropped marginally a gradual fall fell gradually a slight decrease decreased slightly a steady decrease decreased steadily Phrases - Trend remained the same levelled off at remained constant kept the same at remained the same at stable trend kept stable at Phrases - Not Stable Trend unstable trend irregular trend fluctuating trend